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细粒(PM10 和PM2.5)控制技术和法规

作者:Glenn浏览次数: 日期:2018-07-21

PM10 AND PM2.5 - THE EFFECTS, REGULATIONS AND CONTROLLING THIS FINE PARTICULATE

依照NAAQS《美国大气质量标准》的规定:不大于10微米和2.5微米的悬浮微粒定义为对大气质量有显著影响的污染物。

All particulate matter, or Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), has been subject to controls by municipalities and states even prior to the Clean Air Acts of 1970 and 1990, and their predecessor acts dating as early as 1955.  However, beginning in 1987, and following in 1997, 2006 and 2012, the USEPA has established standards for these fine subsets of particulate, PM10 and PM2.5.  The states set Particulate Matter (PM) source emission limits in order to achieve the concentrations mandated by these standards.

所有的悬浮微粒,或者说总悬浮颗粒物排放限制已由于1970年通过并于1990年修正的《清洁空气法案》的规定强制要求州和市政府执行,并且他们的前任早于1955年初就已经着手开始了。尽管如此,在1987年初,接下来在1997年、20062012年,美国环境保护署就已经建立了关于这些微细颗粒物处置的标准。

While large particulate can be expelled by normal inhalation and coughing/sneezing, PM10 has been found to be able to embed in lung tissue and even enter the blood stream, where the particles’ chemical constituents will affect one’s health.  The smaller PM2.5 particulate also has these health effects but as its smaller diameter approaches the wavelengths of visible light, it also produces the visible haze one can view from cities to the national parks. This fine particulate has been shown to increase heart attacks, aggravate asthma, reduce lung function and contribute to premature death.

大的颗粒物能够由正常的呼吸功能排出(呼吸、咳嗽以及打喷嚏),但是PM10细粒已经被发现能够嵌入肺部组织,甚至进入血液系统。同时颗粒物的化学组分将必然影响人的健康!而PM2.5细粒因为其更细小(接近于可见光的波长)故而对人类健康更具威胁:它会形成肉眼可见的霾(在城市普遍可见),增加心脏病的发病率、使哮喘恶化、降低肺功能和提高早死亡率。

PM10 and PM2.5 are produced in a multiplicity of ways.  Natural phenomena, such as waves and wind, wildfires to evaporation, are among those that generate and disperse fine aerosols and solid particles.  Human activity, such as transport, cultivation, animal husbandry, excavation, construction, etc., also add to the fine particulate in the atmosphere.  Combustion, from residential heating to coal-fired electric utilities to fires in structures, increase this burden. 

PM10PM2.5细粒系经由多种方式产生的——自然现象,像波涌和风、野火的散播,其生发和扩散为极细的气溶胶和颗粒物;人类的活动,像交通运输、农耕、畜牧业、采掘、建筑等等,也增加了大气中的粉尘含量;焚烧,从居所采暖到大型燃煤发电设施,也加大了大气中的尘载。

Finally, industrial processes, for producing goods and their intermediates, complete the sources of PM10 and PM2.5.  Unlike many of the wide area contributors, these sources can be well controlled.  Nederman provides the experience, design knowledge and physical equipment to capture, contain and filter the fine particulate, so that it doesn’t enter the atmosphere.

最后,工业生产——为得到货物及其中间物质,所产生的颗粒物完全处于PM10PM2.5的范围之内。但这不像上述的自然现象和人类的活动,这是可以完好地被控制的。卡艾环境依据丰富的业界经验积累和设计能力以及高质量的处理设备来捕捉、过滤这些细粒,以避免其进入大气环境。

 

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该资讯的关键词为:PM10 和PM2.5防治